To work around this problem, explicitly specify "-level 4.1" (which is the highest supported level as per the Samsung Manual). Of course, the frame rate continues to be limited to 30 fps in progressive mode.
These are the settings I use now:
(...) -c:0 libx264 -preset slower -level 4.1 -g 25 -bf 2
I specify "-g 25" to make the video more easily seekable and "-bf 2" to facilitate YouTube uploads (2 consecutive B-Frames is YouTube's recommendation).